The impact of climate changes on human rights
In accordance to Taylor (2001), environmental justice is the ability of the human species to receive fair treatment despite their race, age, culture, income or region. For that reason, it is faithful to claim that environmental justice ensures that the human rights are protected and adhered to the letter. The human species has a right to health, food, life, housing, water and development. However, Bullard (2005), stated that the most compelling evidence proved that the human rights faced environmental injustice due to extreme adverse changes in the climate. Gradually, there has been a shift in the climate behavior that has had an influence on the ecosystem negatively. Corburn (2005), urged that the sub-Saharan region has the most effects in the climate changes. On that note, this dissertation will discuss the impact of variations in the climate on the human rights majorly in the Sudan region that is a country within the sub-Saharan jurisdiction. They include;
In accordance to Haile 2005), and Gleditsch (2012), climate change in the sub-Saharan region has been a major contributor to the increased injuries caused by the human species. These injuries have been as a result of weather disasters such as landslides (the displacement of soil, rocks from their original position) as well as flooding (clogging of water on the flat pieces of land). Deubel (2006), discussed in his article that most of Sudan’s residents are living below poverty levels with most of the houses built in the region were of mud and a few of stone. In the occurrence of a landslide, most of the mud houses are swept away leaving its residents homeless. Under these circumstances, it is then true to claim that the human right to housing was limited. To help curb the situation it is wise for the residents to build houses that are made of stones and have a strong foundation. Hence, ensuring that they have shelter despite the landslides and the flooding that may occur.
According to Alirol (2011), climate changes had caused a rise in the temperature that the human skin endangered to a condition that is known as heat stress. Under those circumstances, Arbab (2010), documented that proved that heat stress causes heat stroke, heat cramps, fainting and at extreme exposure it may cause death. On this situation, the human right to health was limited. Gleditsch (2012) had written in her report that was about the health issues in Sudan, what topped the list was the condition that had been caused by heat stress. She stressed on the issue that in every ten persons, eight had unhealthy skin conditions.
Figure 1: Effect of heat waves on the skin
These conditions made the skin to appear dry and cracked. It was discussed further that most of the residents couldn’t afford treatment. So as to reduce heat stress conditions; it is wise for residents to avoid walking in the sun as well as ensuring that there are fans most of the houses if not all.
Spread of tropical and vector-borne diseases
Meanwhile, Hassan (2011), put across his discovery on an often overlooked factor while discussing impacts of climate changes on the environment. Flooded water is a suitable area for the breeding of mosquitoes that will then lead to the spread of malaria in the region. Similarly, like diarrhea, scabies, conjunctivitis and trachoma diseases can be infected to the residents. Musumba (2011), in relation with Chappuis’s (2011), article, proved that in Sudan, there few hospitals as compared to the number of residents in the area; hence causing the overcrowding of people in hospitals. According to Wilson (2014), when there are huge numbers of people in a hospital, there is a huge possibility that most of the infected individuals with air-borne diseases will affect others in the same hospital.
Figure 3: A patient in hospital due to vector borne disease
It is then impossible to adequately treat a person because there are always issues of being infected with others hence the cycle is continuous. Then at that, the human right to health will have been deprived. Markoff (2013), provided a solution whereby he said that people should drain all stagnant water and sleep in nets so as to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.
According to Markoff, (2013) noted that most of the sub-Saharan region has lesser trees now as compared to the 19th century. Currently, the region is now populated with shrubs, acacia trees, grasses, and herbs.
Figure 2: Desertification in Sahel
Desertification has been attributed to several factors the major one being deforestation. Deforestation is the massive cutting of trees without planting others. Hassan (2012), then stated that most of the Sudan residents used to cut trees so as to make charcoal that they would then sell so as to earn a living for themselves, on the other hand, this activity has increased desertification in the region. Singh (2012), did an interview to understand what the residents think about deforestation; results showed that most of the residents wouldn’t want to stop cutting trees since it has been their only means of earning. Regardless of deforestation making money this habit has deprived the human species to the right of a healthy environment. Nawata (2012), advised that the government should help finance several job-creating projects for the people so as to give alternative works. Some of the job-creating projects would be a construction of hospitals, airports amongst others.
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